June 19, 2009
By Maggie Fox, Health and Science Editor, Reuters
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WASHINGTON (Reuters) – Older women can benefit just as much as younger women from Merck’s Gardasil vaccine against cervical cancer, researchers in Colombia reported on Monday.
They found that women ages 24 to 45 who had no history of cancer-causing genital warts or cervical disease were much less likely to become infected with the wart virus if they got the vaccine than women who got placebo jabs.
The study, published in the Lancet medical journal, points to a potentially lucrative new market for the vaccine against the human papilloma virus or HPV.
Merck, which paid for the Colombian study, has also shown that Gardasil is 90 percent effective in preventing sexually transmitted warts in men.
GlaxoSmithKline’s rival vaccine Cervarix protects against two HPV strains and is used in Europe.
Dr. Nubia Munoz of the National Institute of Cancer in Bogota and colleagues tested 1,900 women who got the recommended series of three Gardasil shots and 1,900 who got sham injections.
After two years, four women who got the vaccine developed an HPV infection or cervical disease, compared to 41 in the placebo group, they wrote — which translates to an efficacy of more than 90 percent.
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. About 20 million Americans are infected with it, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
It is the main cause of cervical cancer, which kills 3,870 women a year in the United States and 300,000 globally.
It can also cause other types of cancer, including anal and penis cancer, as well as mouth and neck cancer. The CDC estimates that HPV caused 25,000 cases of cancer a year in the United States between 1998 and 2003.
Gardasil is designed to protect against HPV types 16 and 18, which are known to cause about 70 percent of all cases of cervical cancer. It also is designed to protect against HPV strains 6 and 11, which cause genital warts.
Gardasil is approved in the United States for use in girls and women ages 9 to 26, but Merck is seeking to expand its use to older women. The vaccine does not protect anyone who has already been infected with one of the strains of HPV.
Vaccinating women over age 26 has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is not included in U.S. CDC guidelines.