Inhibitory Effect of Breast Milk on Infectivity of Live Oral Rotavirus Vaccines.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Oct ;29(10):919-923. PMID: 20442687
Andi L Shane, Baoming Jiang, Luck Ju Baek, Penelope Dennehy, Pratima Ray, Roger I Glass, Sung-Sil Moon, Trang Nguyen, Umesh Parashar, Yuhuan Wang
From the *National Centers for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA;†Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; ‡The National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; §Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India; ¶Department of Pediatrics, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI; ∥Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine,
BACKGROUND:: Live oral rotavirus vaccines have been less immunogenic and efficacious among children in poor developing countries compared with middle income and industrialized countries for reasons that are not yet completely understood. We assessed whether the neutralizing activity of breast milk could lower the titer of vaccine virus and explain this difference in vitro. METHODS:: Breast milk samples were collected from mothers who were breast-feeding infants 4 to 29 weeks of age (ie, vaccine eligible age) in India (N = 40), Vietnam (N = 77), South Korea (N = 34), and the United States (N = 51). We examined breast milk for rotavirus-specific IgA and neutralizing activity against 3 rotavirus vaccine strains-RV1, RV5 G1, and 116E using enzyme immunoassays. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on RV1 was further examined by a plaque reduction assay. FINDINGS:: Breast milk from Indian women had the highest IgA and neutralizing titers against all 3 vaccine strains, while lower but comparable median IgA and neutralizing titers were detected in breast milk from Korean and Vietnamese women, and the lowest titers were seen in American women.
Interesting to note that American women had the lowest titers in the study group (compared to Indian, Korean and Vietnamese women.) Perhaps that says something about the state of women’s health in this country, environmental influences, and the lack of nutrition being passed on to our offspring.